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Aune Reclaiming the F Word: The new feminist movement , London: Media and Society, Bloomsbury: This entry will chart research on citizen media within the field of journalism studies.
It opens by briefly situating citizen media within a broader historical context of participatory initiatives in journalism, including public journalism, alternative media and participatory journalism Gillmor It will then consider how the affordances of digital media have facilitated a range of new forms of citizen media, often embedded in mainstream media as user-generated content.
These include a broad spectrum of practices, ranging from blogs and vlogs to footage of breaking news events. This represents challenges to the self-understanding of professional journalism, as well as to long-standing conventions, such as the ideal of objectivity and the dominance of authoritative sources.
Nonetheless, news organizations continue to seek to manage and co-opt citizen media practices while simultaneously carrying out boundary work to distinguish professional content from that produced by so-called amateurs. In the context of journalism, then, citizen media are shaped by the power relations and political economy underpinning a dynamic and always-changing institution. Sentiment, technology, and politics, Oxford: The field of migration studies is approached through a range of disciplines, from global economics, through sociology and social geography as well as cultural analysis and anthropology.
But in recent years, there has been significant migration-studies-relevant research, particularly in cultural and media studies, in which citizen media broadly defined have been the object of research and analysis, despite persistent gaps. This entry will chart forms of citizen media research that pertain to the experience of forced migration, specifically that of political refugees, asylum seekers and international labour migrants.
I will explore this body of migration-related citizen media research under the recurring themes of human security, exilic consciousness and performativity and conclude with an account of areas where more research might usefully be targeted.
The entry will examine the research profile of different forms of citizen media that provide a context for migrants to give voice to their own experiences, including the research into different forms of music and film making, street art, agitprop theater and other artistic media produced by migrants agitating and advocating on their own behalf Lai Naficy, Hamid An Accented Cinema: This entry will examine a diverse range of performance practices that are, in some way, related to the notion of citizen media.
As the connections between the two are emergent — and thus, to some extent, in the making — the entry will be led by current practice, adopting an empirical approach in the first instance.
It will start by surveying contemporary performances that unfold within, intervene in or disrupt the public sphere, whether this is physical or digital. Rouse eds Performance, Politics and Activism. Basingstoke and New York. An Introduction , New York: Routledge, 2 nd edition. Community-led and grassroots mobilization are associated with long established intellectual traditions, combine theory and practice in transformative and empowering ways, and intersect with philosophy as positioned in the academy.
Multidimensional forms of knowledge production, documentation and cultural expression are central to community advocacy and often synthesized in practice; they not only have continuities with everyday life and struggle but are also sources of epistemic liberation and empowerment. However, questions remain as to why significant forms of citizen media have not been sufficiently recognized for their philosophical potency; community actors have yet to be counted as pivotal interlocutors in dominant epistemic practices or as creators spanning diverse knowledge systems.
This entry explores the possibilities for philosophical practice within community-led and citizen media. In the context of philosophical inquiry, the communication emerging from these advocacy spaces allows for rich and compelling dialogues in their capacity to amplify subaltern counterpublics and cultures of resistance. This appreciation of citizen media thus illuminates the convergence of defiance, philosophical innovation and epistemic pride.
In addition, the entry subverts normalized and state-defined categories that often privilege dominant socio-cultural identities; special attention is placed on the knowledge ecologies, accounts of lived-experience, and cultural forms of non-citizens, stateless peoples and colonized populations. By examining the interdependent relationship between community advocacy, media and philosophical ways of knowing, this entry makes two interventions.
First, it challenges the marginalization and limitations in professional philosophy by exploring the philosophical work done in particular community-led and grassroots organizing. And second, it illustrates how the social-cultural-political spaces and communicative practices of community-led initiatives constitute sites of philosophical discovery. This contribution ultimately examines media strategies and objectives in community advocacy in order to motivate critical questions about tradition, methodology and the canon in philosophy.
University of Texas Press. Political science has long been concerned with the issue of citizen engagement and participation, especially in connection with the development of different models of democracy Held and with the liberal democratic imaginary that a social contract exists between citizens and their power-holders Brown Perhaps as a result of this, citizen media, as a phenomenon and as a concept, has been largely neglected in the mainstream literature within political science.
For classical pluralists, democracy relies on some level of citizen engagement and input, while elitist and corporatist critiques have attributed much less space to active citizenship in increasingly professional and closed decision-making processes Held Against this background, this entry will attempt to trace and develop an extended concept of media, drawing on examples of mediated citizen engagement through artistic activist practices in agonistic public spheres.
Such initiatives can be seen as part of a development of alternative media or counter-media as participatory spaces Marchart The entry will argue that discussions between deliberative and radical democratic approaches to media and citizenship can be fruitfully explored through the concept of citizen media.
Citizen media may work to disrupt the possibilities of an inclusive and deliberative democratic dialogue by not working within the rules of the game. It may therefore make most sense to place citizen media in the antagonistic or agonistic political terrain of radical democracy. The entry will also consider whether and how the idea of citizen media as a particular form of expression by unaffiliated citizens may render visible the contingent and historical foundation of the liberal democratic social imaginary, given that it operates beyond the social contract.
This, again, places citizen media in the realm of radical democracy. A Journal of Ideas, Contexts and Methods 1 2: Popular culture has been variously understood within the field of cultural studies. Moving from outlining and critiquing some of the most dominant conceptualizations of popular culture, this entry will focus on an understanding of the term derived from neo-Marxist Gramscian thought, setting it in relation to institutions of power in a society, whether that of capital mechanism or the state apparatus.
Such views stress the relevance of the term to individuals and groups seeking to subvert the hegemony of mainstream dominant culture Williams , Storey In this sense, the concept of popular culture comes close to that of citizen media in that it is a means of expanding the range of representation and territoriality of agents seeking to introduce a discourse at variance with the dominant one through practices of everyday life that are not tied to capitalist sponsorship or state legitimation.
A cultural history , Cambridge and New York: Schudson eds Rethinking Popular Culture: Contemporary perspectives in cultural studies , Berkeley: University of California Press. University of Minnesota Press. An Introduction , sixth edition, Edinburgh: Although there has been no explicit scholarly or artistic relationship between citizen media and postcolonial studies so far, this entry will demonstrate that an implicit dialogue between the two fields operates on several levels, including the level of critiquing power, practices and ambiguities in the context of potential commercialization and cooptation.
Postcolonial studies is primarily concerned with issues of knowledge production and the power of defining knowledge. Postcolonial critique brings to light alternative, subaltern knowledge productions and positions, which are not necessarily presented in traditional academic or journalistic form.
This entry will thus begin by arguing that the political critiques of postcolonial studies are not only compatible with, but may also be illustrative of the performative, creative and political practices of knowledge production in which unaffiliated citizens engage, thus highlighting points of synergy between postcolonial studies and citizen media as defined by Baker and Blaagaard The entry proceeds by discussing a number of postcolonial and decolonial practices proposed by various scholars for delinking knowledge production; these, it will be argued, are helpful for understanding practices of citizen media.
Firstly, the concept of expressive vernacular, discussed by Paul Gilroy in diverse forms throughout his writings, embodies the practice of remembering colonial culture and continued struggles through art.
Secondly, the practice of counter-reading literature and historical accounts, developed by Edward Said among others , involves reimagining and reconstructing historical narratives.
Finally, the entry will return to the concept of border thinking. Examples of case studies demonstrating how postcolonial practices intersect with citizen media will then be discussed. The entry ends by discussing how these very critiques, practices and expressions continually run the risk of exoticism and essentialism of otherness through cooptation and appropriation within a commercial market economy, as highlighted by Baker and Blaagaard and Ponzanesi , among others.
Icons, markets, mythologies , Basingstoke: Long vexed by the ways in which social theory marginalizes questions of race, the porous field of Race and Ethnicity Studies has in turn minimized the question of media, beyond an established focus on the politics of representation.
While such international scholarly organizations as the ICA, IAMCR and ECREA all have permanent sections examining questions of race and ethnicity in the media, the impact of these research traditions is more pronounced in Media and Communication Studies than the broad cultural-sociological field of Race and Ethnicity.
Nevertheless, the expansive definition of citizen media that underpins this entry Baker and Blaagaard provides an interesting space in which to consider how the field has engaged with the media self-organization of racialized actors in historical and sociological context. This essay will examine research on a media platforms produced within the context of migratory networks and marginalized communities that seek to establish not just communal but alternative and counter political media spaces and c citizen media initiatives that seek to intervene in the flow of racialized representation and framing that remains stubbornly resilient in dominant media discourse.
Fighting racism in the media , London: Comedia in conjunction with Campaign Against Racism in the Media. Torres News for All the People: This entry explores questions pertaining to the body politic and sexuality, and discusses existing debates on the sometime fraught relationship between users of media understood in a broad sense and the technologies, instruments and formats they employ. To this end, this entry will survey research issues and case studies within three separate but interrelated research areas: Under each section, I will discuss the transnational politics of citizen media by referring to global and postcolonial case-studies.
The first part of the entry, consisting of three sections, will map scholarship about grassroots queer feminist media, understood in broad terms. The second part will consider similar issues with regards to the construction of alternative queer and feminist political and art-based spaces from below. It will provide a transnational account of so-called queer and feminist DIY spaces and describe how the study of their global formation contributes to rethinking definitions of citizen media.
Furthermore, it will examine the making of feminist and queer spaces in relation to the anti-feminist counter-movements that have arisen in response to them.
Drawing on an emerging body of scholarship on far-right grassroots politics, this example will foreground the importance of citizen media and sexuality in the formation of the field of right-wing studies. Finally, the third part will explore the tension between the construction of autonomous spaces and media that make space for marginalised knowledges and subjects, and the use of alternative media as an instrument of surveillance and social control.
To illustrate this tension, I will draw on scholarship on citizen video and sexual assault, as well as debates on cyber homophobic and transphobic hate crime. Youth, media and queer visibility in rural America , New York: New York University Press. Communication strategies in action , Thousand Oaks: Piepmeier, A Girl Zines: Ratto eds DIY Citizenship: Critical Making and Social Media, Cambridge: This entry provides a discussion of citizen media from the perspective of social movement studies.
Positioning media and mediation processes at the heart of all of these dimensions of social movements, the entry pulls together key readings and current literature on the interplay between media and movements.
In doing so, it highlights some of the work currently being done by a new generation of social movement media scholars working to bridge the gap between media and communication studies and social movement studies. With the upsurge in protest movements across the world over the past decade, scholarly interest, from a multitude of disciplines, in the relation between political mobilisations and digital media in particular has however increased dramatically.
While ensuring that the broader historical trajectory of this relation is not ignored, this entry does pay particular attention to the relatively recent adaptation and appropriation of social media into social movement media repertoires and how this has influenced both strategic and expressive activities of social movements actors and organisations.
The social movement perspective implies that privilege is given to the role of citizen media in movement building, collective action and strategic communication at the expense of the appropriation of such media and media practices in more loose, individualised and ephemeral forms of civic engagement and activism of unaffiliated citizens that have also mushroomed over the past decade see Neumeyer, entry on activism, this volume.
A history of media participation in times of crisis, London: As a relatively young discipline that is closely associated with a range of professional careers, Translation Studies traditionally situated itself within the corporate world and the mainstream. Theories of translation and interpreting emphasized values such as fidelity and neutrality, which served to reassure employers but divested translators and interpreters of all agency.
This paved the way for researchers to engage with the intervention of unaffiliated translators and interpreters in a wide range of contexts. Following a brief overview of some of the main theoretical trends that have aided this shift in perspective, including work informed by feminist and postcolonial scholarship, this entry will focus on two main strands of research that engage critically with the intervention of non-affiliated, unpaid translators and interpreters, and hence with instances of citizen media as conceptualized by Baker and Blaagaard The first is scholarship on fan translation, most importantly fansubbing Lee and scanlation Madeley , which challenges the logic of the market economy and often treads a tight rope between legality and illegality.
The second is research on groups of activist translators and interpreters, such as Babels and Tlaxcala, which pose a challenge to the political world order. The entry will conclude with a brief discussion of other areas of citizen media practice that are yet to receive scholarly attention in Translation Studies.
This entry examines two traditions of citizen science. The second is driven by community groups organized to solve local problems, who see value in creating a quantitative basis for their local knowledge. Through the collection of monitoring, health and visual data, participants give new meaning and visibility to their experiences as part of their quest for social change. By reducing grassroots efforts to their contributions to scientific knowledge, scientists undercut the emancipatory intent of social movement-based citizen science.
In their misrecognition of grassroots efforts, we see the same patterns of appropriation encountered by other kinds of citizen media. Citizen science , Tempe, AZ: Consortium for Science, Policy, and Outcomes, pp.
Many scholars have studied the relationships between these transformations and the concept of citizenship itself. Some urged tightening the use of citizenship to indicate that the latter is strictly membership in a state status whilst others have encouraged more differentiated uses of the term to describe various practices of belonging, identification, and struggles.
These uses create tensions when legal citizenship can have a precise meaning of who may or may not act under certain capacities as differentiated uses proliferate where seemingly anyone can act like a citizen. This tension might well be a productive and inherent tension in the concept itself. This encyclopedia entry outlines a critical approach to citizenship that acknowledges its need to be continually differentiated while recognising that it may need a precise meaning. I propose to consider citizenship functioning under different senses that mobilise it: I argue that there are always gaps between these senses and the creative work of citizens takes place in these gaps.
Kruman eds The Meaning of Citizenship , Detroit: Groves eds Performing Citizenship: Social movements across the globe , London: A practice of democratic citizenship , Oxford: USA permission - walk step-by-step strategy development selling houses Legal. Tom De Mark Trend line Strategy;.
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